–ѕа°±б>ю€ @Bю€€€A€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€м•Ѕ7 рњX+bjbjUU .87|7|%Ј€€€€€€l∆∆∆∆∆∆∆Џ8L`Џ],ИИ"™™™ёёё–““““““$Й ©<ц!∆ёёёёёцо ∆∆™™4о о о ёЊ∆™∆™–о ё–о Мо z rtЬ∆∆Љ™| .,Hэ»Џ:ЬвЉ-0]Юе~ pеЉо ЏЏ∆∆∆∆ўReflections on the Work for Persons with Disabilities in China: Experiences and Lessons In Context of the UN Disability Convention (Abstract) Speaker: Eric Guozhong Zhang (China Disabled Persons Federation) Hong Kong, Jan. 24th 2008 Persons with disabilities (PWDs) as a group are individuals who are at disadvantaged status, encountered with special difficulties and need supportive assistance from states and other stakeholders for the full realization of their equal rights in almost everywhere in the world. The disability issue has attracted worldwide attention by countries and international community. The adoption of Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on Dec. 13th 2006 at the 62nd session of General Assembly of the United Nations was a Уhistorical achievementФ for some 650 millions of PWDs in the world. The Convention is expected to have a far-reaching impact on the endeavor in promoting and protecting the rights of PWDs in all states and regions. China, as one of a few earliest countries advocating for the UN Convention, played an active role in participating and advancing the process of elaborating the UN Convention. China signed the Convention on 30th March 2007 and is now undergoing the process of ratification. The UN CRPD is important in three aspects: (1). It recognizes the full rights of PWDs and highlights the responsibilities and obligations of states and other stakeholders; (2). It calls on a paradigm shift in understanding and dealing with disability issues; (3) on the basis of respect for rights and dignity of PWDs, CRPD requires the betterment of services and practices and in some cases, may challenge traditional practices of serving PWDs, for instance guardianship. CRPD will have significant impact on all countries and regions in the world. It will prove an opportunity for development and also a challenge. Part 1: Realizing the Rights of PWDs: different approaches and models Disability issues exist everywhere in the world. There are several different approaches and practices to address the problems faced by PWDs, among them two approaches appear the most outstanding. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and in the context of implementing and achieving the goals set by the UN Convention and for the full realization of rights and fundamental freedom for persons with disabilities, they should learn from each other. The first model or approach tends to emphasize non-discrimination, removal of barriers for equal opportunity especially equal access to public services and highlight the importance of judicial procedures. An example of this model can be found in the northern America. This model recognizes rights of an individual in question in a straightforward manner which is good for he or she to claim and safeguard rights. But it relies too much on the individualsТ capability and efforts instead of the state or government in initiating the process for protecting their rights. Besides, the success of this model depends also on the availability and operation of a fair and efficient judicial system and a team of well-trained and qualified lawyers. The second model or approach is well represented by a number of continental European countries. This model tries to address disability problems and in the end to ensure the rights enjoyed by the PWDs through provision of social services, welfare and protection. It requires the state to play an active role in regulating and guiding market and society. The success of this model also depends on many factors. If everything goes well and gets cooperation of other parties in particular active participation of civil society, it can deliver and/or improve services especially infrastructure in a responsive manner and efficiently meet basic demand of large amount of PWDs and so to ensure the protection and realization of their rights. However, it also has some disadvantages. Mainly driven by the state, due to potential institutional bureaucracy, it could more likely faced problems such as waste of resources, relative low efficiency and high cost for operation. Though difference between the two approaches or models, they are not necessary confronting with each others. In recent years, there emerged an interesting tendency in approaching to and learning from the counterparts in both Europeans and Americans. The mainland China has a rather short history of the work for PWDs. It tried to find a way based on our own national situation and learning from good practices from others. After 2 decades or so, it has made a significant progress with both lessons and experiences. In terms of practices in the past decades, China learnt more from the model found in some countries in continental Europe. Part 2. Progress made in China Looking back the history, it was in late 1980s that the mainland China started its work for PWDs in a comprehensive and systematic way. The founding of CDPF in 1988 might be recorded as a milestone event of historical calendar. Before discussing ChinaТs work for PWDs or the protection of rights of PWDs in China, one need know some fundamental facts and preconditions for China to deal with, in other words, late start of the work, rather lower level of development, less or lack of experience and shortage of resources available needed for the use of social security for severing people with disabilities. Yet China has the largest population of persons with disabilities. According to the latest released statistic data from the 2nd National Sampling Survey on Disability, the estimated total disability population amounts to nearly 83 millions. No doubt, the challenge is huge. Besides, there still exist a problem we have to deal with, that is, negative conception of and attitude about disability among the general public and mainstream culture, custom and traditions. Taking account of all these preconditions, one can fairly say that the mainland has made a remarkable progress and change in the past twenty years or so, in providing services and protecting rights for PWDs. We started from nearly zero, grow up steadily and now upgrade level and quality of services. Why? Fact had said for itself. 1. A large amount of PWDs have got tangible benefit and their living standard and social status are uplifted due to efforts in the 2 decades. ( 10 million PWDs in hardship got rid of poverty, rehabilitation, 13 million got rehab services, employment and enrolment rates were significantly increased and some 3300 persons with disabilities and their family members became congressmen and women and active in political life of the country.) 2. Changing attitude of the general public towards PWDs. More and more have positive conception and attitude instead of negative or discriminatory ones towards PWDs. This is in fact the biggest change found in the past 20 years in the field of disability. Part 3: CRPD Convention and China The CRPD convention provides an unprecedented protection for PWDs and will certainly bring about new opportunity and challenge for the work in all states and regions: (1). CRPD requires the states to protect and promote the full rights of PWDs and highlights the duty and obligations of the states in particular; (2). CRPD calls on a paradigm shift in understanding and dealing with PWDs and disability issues; (3) With respect for rights and dignity of PWDs as a key prinicple, it is needed to improve services and practices of serving PWDs . China is the largest developing country with huge amount of disability population. Compared to other countries, China started later in the work for PWDs in comprehensive way. In the past decade, China did well and made a remarkable progress in accelerated development in meeting the basic needs of PWDs and promoting the rights of PWDs. In light of CRPD Convention and for the purpose of the work in future, there are some key lessons and experience to draw. A pro-disability legal and policy framework is desirable- while recognizing equal rights, it requires the state to take affirmative actions to address the special difficulties and needs of PWDs and support towards the realization of equality between the disabled and non-disabled. Strategy of inclusive development. Targeting at those most outstanding problems faced by PWDs, mainstream disability concerns into 5 national economic and social development programmes. Mechanism of partnership. A leading and coordinating focal point in the governments at all levels and the partnership with other stakeholders including DPOs. How to regulate the private sector under a market economy is a new challenge. Anti-discrimination and empowerment through inclusive development. Disability issue is about human rights and also development. Greater importance shall be attached to anti-discrimination in the future. Experience from China and other countries such as USA shows, for the full realization of equal rights of PWDs and to effectively address many issues like employment promotion, poverty alleviation and accessibility, it is necessary to strengthen efforts of combating discrimination, but positive actions is also needed. In light of the CRPD its spirit and provisions, and in order to address the special difficulties faced by PWDs in economic and social aspects, states shall have supportive policies and measures to include disability issues into mainstream development and to further empower PWDs and their organizations.     0ШkЊugkЦЙЭhЛO 0 - ASt^™RЫR0ЛХ”b*gЖOxКg  Our Ten Years under the DDO  Moving Forward, Changing Cultures Seminar Abstract of Mr. Eric ZHANG PAGE   PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 5 ПРджлЉЊЌѕ∞≤[ Ґ ЪЇЧЩу#=#$?$„$п$ƒ%&))))) ) ) ) )*0*ƒ*»*ю*+++++++H+J+L+чтмдмтётётётмтмтётмтЎтЎтЎтЎтћ««««є≠°ХОЛОЛ««ГmHnHsHu0J j0JUCJPJaJnHo(tHCJOJPJQJaJo(5БCJOJPJQJaJ5БCJOJPJQJaJo( jUCJPJaJnHo(tH 6БCJaJ CJH*aJ5БCJH*aJ 5БCJaJCJaJ5БCJPJaJ3ОПРЃ“мнeатЋ [ \ Ґ n SЩЪуууууукЁЁ   љ∞ЁЁЁЁЁЁ Дdh§ЬYD2^Д Д§dh§ЬYD2^Д§ДДЖdh§ЬWDЦYD2^Д`ДЖ Д§dh§ЬYD2`Д§dh§ЬYD2 $dh§ЬYD2a$)V+ююЪЇЮо;ттфљP ≥ 9!#$„$ƒ%Т&“')цйййййццйЏЏЏЏ ЊЊЊЂЂДДdh§ЬVDЖYD2^Д`Д & Fdh§ЬYD2 & FДЏэdh§ЬYD2`ДЏэДdh§ЬWDdYD2`Д Д§dh§ЬYD2`Д§dh§ЬYD2)))) ) ) )))0*ƒ*∆*»*ю*+++++P+R+T+V+X+ээээээээыыыысыэивэЁвээ ДДdh§ЬVDЖYD2^Д`Д$a$Дh]ДhДш€Д&`#$ &dP∆€L+N+V+X+ъоCJPJaJnHo(tH jU,1Р82P∞В. ∞∆A!∞n"∞n#Р•$РS%∞∞` Р© iJ@с€J Normal $1$a$ CJKH_HaJmH nHsH tH<A@т€°< Default Paragraph Font< @т< Footer$ ∆9r G$a$CJaJ&)@Ґ&  Page Number6@6 Header ∆9r G$CJaJ0юOҐ!0 Char Char KHnHtH:юOҐ1: Char Char1CJKHaJnHtHї%8€€€€ОПРЃ“мнeатЋ[\Ґn S ЩЪЇЮо;ттфљP≥9 „ ƒ!Т"“#%'%q%r%s%О%П%Ы%Ј%Є%Љ%ШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШААШ ААШ ААШ ААШ ААШААШААЪ@0ААШ@0ААШ@0ААШ@0ААШ@0ААШ@0ААЪ@0ААЪ@0ААШ@0АА 0 НШґґґєL+X+Ъ)X+V+НФШ∞≤є!Х!€ХАр@р  @с€€€АААчрH рр0р( р ррТрр0р( р ррB рS рњЋ€ ?рЮ¶злнфхщмх%%%%%%% % % %%%%%&%Р%Ш%Ы%ґ%є%Љ%ЬЭ… д Е тъ≠Є÷џ…ЌMN∞±17%%%%%%% % % %%%&%є%Љ%33333333333вл%%%%%%% % % %%%s%О%є%Љ%€€abcЊD:\HiTibet\Tibet mission\Reference\CDPF and PWDs in China\Reflections on the Work for Persons with Disabilities in China Experiences and Lessons In Context of the UN Disability Conventio.docq/іАр €€€€€€€€€;|Sа^(€€€€€€€€€~” Ш>»€€€€€€€€€TБpА9ф€€€€€€€€€ ДОДШю∆О^ДО`ДШюЗhИH. 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